European Ecological Network Natura 2000 is the youngest but also the most advanced form of conservation. Its primary objective is to protect biodiversity in the European Union wedłóg the same criteria. With the same criteria for protection in each of the states all States have managed to create the ecological korzytaż for free migration of birds, mammals and other protected animals.
Natura 2000 is the youngest of the forms of nature protection, introduced in 2004. In Poland as one of the responsibilities associated with our country's accession to the European Union. Natura 2000 sites are created in all Member States by establishing a European Ecological Network Natura 2000 protected areas.
The main objective of the European Ecological Network Natura 2000 is to preserve certain types of natural habitats and species that are considered rare and endangered in the whole of Europe. The second is designed to protect biodiversity. The functioning of the program are two EU directives called .: The Birds and Habitats Directive: The Birds Directive (Directive of the European Parliament and Council Directive 2009/147 / EC of 30 November 2009. On the conservation of wild birds - before Council Directive 79/409 / EEC of 2 April 1979. On the conservation of wild birds) - defines the criteria to determine the refuge for endangered species of birds; The Habitats Directive (Council Directive 92/43 / EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora) - establishes rules for the protection of other species, as well as plants and natural habitats and procedures for the protection of natural areas particularly important.
In accordance with the above-mentioned acts, each EU member state has a duty to ensure that natural habitats and species listed in Annexes Habitats and Birds Directives conditions conducive to the protection, restoration or care about their wellbeing, among others, through the designation and protection of areas where these habitats and species present.
Directives define two types of areas: Bird Areas - formally Special Protection Areas (SPAs) habitat areas - formal areas of Community Importance (SCI) / Special Areas of Conservation (SACs). Special Protection Areas are designated for the protection of wild bird populations of one or more species. These areas are determined individually by each country, based on the identified criteria. The European Commission checks whether a national network of account of all relevant bird sanctuaries in the country and that the designated areas form a coherent whole. In the case of special areas of conservation of habitats, each Member State shall prepare and submit to the Commission a list of its territory lying areas of the most valuable in terms of nature, corresponding to species and habitat requirements contained in the Directive Habitats. After the submission of the list, the areas are assigned biogeographical regions evaluated and selected, and then evaluated. A key element of this procedure is to biogeographic seminar, during which evaluated the completeness of the network for each of the species and habitats that are objects of protection. Then, the European Commission approved by decision areas as' sites of Community importance - ACS "(Site of Community Importance - SCI). From that moment they acquire the status of Natura 2000. Member countries within 6 years after the decision of the Commission shall be required to designate these refuges as special protection areas.
The most important criterion for determining the Natura 2000 sites are the natural values of the area. Social and economic conditions are analyzed and taken into account in the development of management plans for individual areas. For each Natura 2000 documentation is developed, which consists of: Standard Data Form (Standard Data Form - SDF), which contains the most important information about the location and size of the area, occurring types of habitats and species "naturowych", their abundance or representativeness in the country, the nature and risks; digital maps in vector form. SDF and maps will be updated with the progress of knowledge on the occurrence of natural resources in the Natura 2000 (inventory, environmental monitoring), in accordance with the procedure laid down by the European Commission. Natura 2000 sites may include some or all of the areas and objects covered by other forms of protection. The establishment of the Natura 2000 network, which is unique in the world in terms of international nature conservation area confirms that the protection of threatened biodiversity of Europe is one of the priorities of the European Union's activities.